MIDATECH PHARMA
Technologies | GNP Technology

 

Midatech glycan-coated GNP  

Midatech’s primary platform technology is based on carbohydrate-coated gold nanoparticle (GNP) drug conjugates.

Midatech’s core technology platform is based on a patented form of gold nanoparticles (GNPs), which has been developed to improve key parameters when bound to existing and new drugs. GNPs aim to target individual cell types with specific targeting agents and deliver a therapeutic payload into the tumour cell, and reduce the current side-effect profile associated with chemotherapy. GNP technology is the latest generation of nanomedicine, with demonstrated safety in the clinic to date.

The key advantages of Midatech’s GNP platform technology are:

GNPs comprise of a core of gold metal atoms to which an organic layer of carbohydrates or glycans (e.g. glucose, galactose or lactose) are attached via gold-sulphur bonds. The carbohydrate layer stabilises the metallic core (passivation) and makes the particle both water-soluble and biocompatible.

Linkers for therapeutic agents (e.g. small molecules and chemotherapeutics) and peptides (e.g. insulin) – are attached to the gold core during the self-formation process. This process involves intricate yet uncomplicated synthesis that produces multi-component particles that may deliver multiple drug molecules to the targeted site.

Midatech nanoparticle design and synthesis technology enables the production of stable, reproducible constructs consisting of 1-2nm sized metallic cores that are stabilised by a strongly bound field of specific ligands. The ligand field can serve several purposes and may be designed in such a way as to control the properties and behaviours of product nanoparticles, and prevent unwanted particle growth or fusion between particles. The strong ligand field allows ultra-small nanoparticles to remain as stable, discrete entities. The chemical nature of the ligand field has a strong influence on reactivity and solubility. Hydrophilic ligands are used to enhance water solubility. Lipid-soluble nanoparticles can also be produced by substituting some or all of the ligands bound to the metal cores.

Intracellular release of payloads is via glutathione (GSH)-mediated release of payloads from the GNP surface i.e. is placement of the payload by GSH. GSH is the most abundant thiol species in the cytoplasm and the main reducing agent in biochemical processes, providing a potential in situ releasing source in living cells. The intracellular GSH concentration (1-10 mM) is substantially higher than extracellular levels (2uM in plasma), providing a mechanism for selective intracellular release. GSH thus serves as an effective trigger to release a payload GNP surfaces. In oncology, this differential in GSH concentrations is even more marked between cancer cells and normal cells, thus it is an important advantage is GNP cancer therapeutics.

The GNP platform has potential uses in Oncology, Immunology/ Auto-immunology, Vaccines and Neurology. 

Technologies
GNP Technology

Midatech’s primary platform technology is based on carbohydrate-coated gold nanoparticle (GNP) drug conjugates.

Midatech’s core technology platform is based on a patented form of gold nanoparticles (GNPs), which has been developed to improve key parameters when bound to existing and new drugs. GNPs aim to target individual cell types with specific targeting agents and deliver a therapeutic payload into the tumour cell, and reduce the current side-effect profile associated with chemotherapy. GNP technology is the latest generation of nanomedicine, with demonstrated safety in the clinic to date.

The key advantages of Midatech’s GNP platform technology are:

GNPs comprise of a core of gold metal atoms to which an organic layer of carbohydrates or glycans (e.g. glucose, galactose or lactose) are attached via gold-sulphur bonds. The carbohydrate layer stabilises the metallic core (passivation) and makes the particle both water-soluble and biocompatible.

Linkers for therapeutic agents (e.g. small molecules and chemotherapeutics) and peptides (e.g. insulin) – are attached to the gold core during the self-formation process. This process involves intricate yet uncomplicated synthesis that produces multi-component particles that may deliver multiple drug molecules to the targeted site.

Midatech nanoparticle design and synthesis technology enables the production of stable, reproducible constructs consisting of 1-2nm sized metallic cores that are stabilised by a strongly bound field of specific ligands. The ligand field can serve several purposes and may be designed in such a way as to control the properties and behaviours of product nanoparticles, and prevent unwanted particle growth or fusion between particles. The strong ligand field allows ultra-small nanoparticles to remain as stable, discrete entities. The chemical nature of the ligand field has a strong influence on reactivity and solubility. Hydrophilic ligands are used to enhance water solubility. Lipid-soluble nanoparticles can also be produced by substituting some or all of the ligands bound to the metal cores.

Intracellular release of payloads is via glutathione (GSH)-mediated release of payloads from the GNP surface i.e. is placement of the payload by GSH. GSH is the most abundant thiol species in the cytoplasm and the main reducing agent in biochemical processes, providing a potential in situ releasing source in living cells. The intracellular GSH concentration (1-10 mM) is substantially higher than extracellular levels (2uM in plasma), providing a mechanism for selective intracellular release. GSH thus serves as an effective trigger to release a payload GNP surfaces. In oncology, this differential in GSH concentrations is even more marked between cancer cells and normal cells, thus it is an important advantage is GNP cancer therapeutics.

The GNP platform has potential uses in Oncology, Immunology/ Auto-immunology, Vaccines and Neurology. 

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